Dubbing and voice-over
Title of edited book
Handbook of Translation Studies: Volume 1
Year of publication
When confronted with language transfer in the audiovisual industry, there are two fundamental approaches. Either oral output remains oral output, as in the original production, or it is transformed into written output. The latter is known as subtitling and consists in using written text on screen to account for the original dialogue exchanges. The former is generally known as revoicing, whereby the original soundtrack may be totally replaced by a new one in the TL, which means that the target viewer can no longer hear the original exchanges, as in dubbing (also known as lip sync) and narration. The other approach is when the translation is overlapped and the original spoken dialogue is still audible in the background, as in the case of voiceover and interpreting.