Publication Title
Proceedings of the first international seminar on real-time intralingual subtitling
Title of the conference
First International Seminar on Real-time Intralingual Subtitling
Publication Type
Conference Proceedings
Date of the conference
Year of publication


Real-time subtitling is a subject of growing interest both for the audiovisual and the deaf communities, and consequently for the academic world.

Thanks to fast technological development in the production of real-time subtitles, and to great progress in speech-recognition, new tools are increasing the potential for “special needs” subtitles; besides stenotyping, new techniques are developing, among which respeaking.

However, much research is still needed, especially on the skills and competences needed to produce high-quality real-time subtitles for the deaf and the hard-of-hearing, and on the training of real-time subtitlers coming from different professional backgrounds (stenographing, pre-recorded subtitling, simultaneous interpreting).

An international seminar organized in November 2006 by the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies in Translation, Languages and Cultures and the Advanced School of Modern Languages for Interpreters and Translators of the University of Bologna at Forlì, focussed on the two most popular techniques to produce real-time subtitles for the deaf, stenotyping and respeaking, and their potential in educational, research, professional, technological and social terms.

The seminar gathered professionals, scholars, broadcasters, IT experts and deaf people interested in this new form of audiovisual translation and offered an overview on the best practices of real-time subtitling in different European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, and Italy) as well as focussing on new technological developments in this field. This special issue of InTRAlinea contains a selection of the most interesting papers presented during the seminar.

After an introductive part with a general look on the manifold aspects of transcription (Mack) and on respeaking (Eugeni), the contributions have been arranged into different sections. Lambourne and Aliprandi & Verruso deal with real-time subtitling softwares and technicalities, Trivulzio and Ramondelli describe past and present of stenotyping, Muzii focusses on the use of respeaking in Internet.

Baaring, Chen, de Korte, de Seriis and Orero describe the state of the art of television subtitiling in Danmark, Taiwan, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain, respectively. This overview is further broadened by transcriptions of some of the oral interventions during the Seminar (Higgs and Marsh for the United Kingdom, Pea & Cannarozzo for Switzerland, Remael & van der Veer for Flanders/Belgium).

The last contributions deal both with technical aspects (Di Silvio) and with practical considerations and needs of the end users about subtitling (Mereghetti and Pirelli). The work and profession of subtitlers and respeakers, their skills and training are not confined to a specific section, but are present in almost all articles, though in particular in Baaring, Chen, Marsh, Trivulzio and van der Veer.
Submitted by Irene Tor on Fri, 12/07/2019 - 03:03